Education Endowment Foundation:Improving Literacy in Key Stage 2

Improving Literacy in Key Stage 2

Develop fluent reading and writing skills for seven – 11 year olds.

Second Edition


School Phases


This report offers seven practical, evidence-based recommendations that are relevant to all pupils, and particularly to those struggling with their literacy. To develop the recommendations, we reviewed the best available international research and consulted experts to arrive at key principles for effective literacy teaching.

This second edition of the guidance report presents the same recommendations as the first but also offers additional examples, explanations, and resources to support educators to put the recommendations into practice. The report is one of a series of four guidance reports that the EEF has produced on the theme of language and literacy. It focuses on pedagogy and approaches to support the literacy development of pupils between the ages of seven and eleven in Key Stage 2. However, teachers may also find it useful for older pupils who have fallen behind their peers, or younger pupils who are making rapid progress.

Evidence and resources

The Reading House

Explore the rooms to access resources to support the different skills underpinning reading comprehension.
Read more aboutThe Reading House

Reading at the transition

An introduction to evidence about struggling readers at the transition