1. Built environment

    Very low or no impact for low cost, based on very limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    0
  2. Communication and language approaches

    High impact for very low cost, based on extensive evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +6
  3. Digital technology

    Moderate impact for moderate cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +4
  4. Earlier starting age

    High impact for very high cost, based on moderate evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +6
  5. Early literacy approaches

    Moderate impact for very low cost, based on moderate evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +4
  6. Early numeracy approaches

    High impact for very low cost, based on extensive evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +6
  7. Extra hours

    Moderate impact for very high cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +3
  8. Parental engagement

    Moderate impact for moderate cost, based on moderate evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +4
  9. Physical development approaches

    Moderate impact for very low cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +3
  10. Play-based learning

    Moderate impact for very low cost, based on very limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +5
  11. Self-regulation strategies

    Moderate impact for very low cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +5
  12. Social and emotional learning strategies

    Moderate impact for moderate cost, based on very limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Impact (months)
    +3