1. Communication and language approaches

    High impact for very low cost, based on extensive evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +6
  2. Digital technology

    Moderate impact for moderate cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +4
  3. Earlier starting age

    High impact for very high cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +6
  4. Early literacy approaches

    Moderate impact for very low cost, based on extensive evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +4
  5. Early numeracy approaches

    Moderate impact for very low cost, based on moderate evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +5
  6. Extra hours

    Moderate impact for very high cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +3
  7. Parental engagement

    Moderate impact for moderate cost, based on moderate evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +5
  8. Physical development approaches

    Low impact for very low cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +2
  9. Physical environment

    Very Low or no impact for low cost, based on very limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    0
  10. Play-based learning

    Moderate impact for very low cost, based on very limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +3
  11. Self-regulation strategies

    High impact for very low cost, based on limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +7
  12. Social and emotional learning strategies

    Moderate impact for moderate cost, based on very limited evidence.

    Cost
    Evidence Strength
    Months Impact
    +3