Testing theories through experiments and trials is crucial for pupils to learn science and could improve results for disadvantaged pupils in primary and secondary schools, according to a new report published by the Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) and the Royal Society today.
Researchers from the Department of Education at the University of Oxford reviewed the best international research to identify the interventions and approaches for which there is evidence of a positive impact on young people’s learning outcomes, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds.
They found good evidence that the ability to reason scientifically – by testing hypotheses through well-controlled experiments – is a strong predictor of later success in the sciences and that programmes that allow pupils to design experiments that test the impact of one thing on another can develop this skill. Many effective programmes give teachers training to guide their pupils’ scientific reasoning by setting questions that can be investigated and getting them to design fair tests.
The researchers found that the strongest factor affecting pupils’ science scores is how well they understand written texts. According to the report, poor literacy skills can affect how well a pupil is able to understand scientific vocabulary and to prepare scientific reports. This suggests that strategies to boost disadvantaged pupils’ reading comprehension could have a positive impact on their achievement in science too
The report finds that lack of ‘opportunities to learn’ is a major factor related to lower achievement in science. This is the basis for the success of other strategies identified in the report as effective, including school science clubs and trips to museums. The review found good evidence that programmes that allow pupils to visit places like a university laboratory or a museum, or get scientists to visit a school, can boost science grades for secondary school pupils, provided that the experiences are set up in carefully structured ways
The report also analysed attainment data to measure the extent of the gap in science outcomes between disadvantaged pupils and their better-off classmates. The findings confirm that there is a gap in science outcomes at every stage in the education system, which first becomes apparent at Key Stage 1 (ages 5 – 7) and only gets wider throughout primary and secondary school and on to A‑level. The gap is as wide as it is in English and maths and grows particularly strongly between the ages 5 – 7 and 11 – 16
The report finds that it is not lack of motivation to learn science that is contributing to the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and their better-off classmates. Analysis of attainment data finds that the biggest predictors of pupils’ attainment in science are their levels of literacy and their scientific reasoning ability
The EEF will use this review to inform guidance for teachers on teaching science, due to be published in Spring 2018. The guidance will set out practical and evidence-based recommendations for teaching science in primary and secondary school
Sir Kevan Collins, Chief Executive of the Education Endowment Foundation, said today:
Professor Tom McLeish FRS, Chair of the Royal Society’s Education Committee, said:
Notes to editors:
- The Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) is a grant-making charity set up in 2011 by the Sutton Trust as lead foundation in partnership with Impetus Trust (now part of Impetus – The Private Equity Foundation), with a £125m founding grant from the Department for Education. The EEF is dedicated to breaking the link between family income and educational achievement. Since its launch the EEF has awarded £89 million to test the impact of 145 projects reaching 9760,000 children and young people in 9,400 schools, nurseries and colleges across England. The EEF and Sutton Trust are, together, the government-designated What Works Centre for Education.
- The EEF previously funded a trial of Thinking, Doing, Talking Science (TDTS), a programme that aims to make science lessons in primary schools more practical, creative and challenging. Teachers were trained in a repertoire of strategies that aim to encourage pupils to use higher order thinking skills. For example, pupils are posed ‘Big Questions’, such as ‘How do you know that the earth is a sphere?’ that are used to stimulate discussion about scientific topics and the principles of scientific enquiry. appeared to have a positive impact on the attainment of pupils in science. Overall, Year 5 pupils in schools using the approach made approximately three additional months’ progress. It appeared to have a particularly positive effect for disadvantaged pupils.
- The Royal Society is a self-governing Fellowship of many of the world’s most distinguished scientists drawn from all areas of science, engineering, and medicine. The Society’s fundamental purpose, as it has been since its foundation in 1660, is to recognise, promote, and support excellence in science and to encourage the development and use of science for the benefit of humanity. The Society’s strategic priorities emphasise its commitment to the highest quality science, to curiosity-driven research, and to the development and use of science for the benefit of society. These priorities are:
- Promoting science and its benefits
- Recognising excellence in science
- Supporting outstanding science
- Providing scientific advice for policy
- Fostering international and global cooperation
- Education and public engagement
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