|Name of test||Lucid Assessment System for Schools (LASS 11–15)|
|Previous version(s)||LASS secondary, 1st, 2nd and 3rd editions. Note that LASS 8–11 is also available for primary age.|
Computerised system for assessment of dyslexic tendencies and other learning needs. LASS 8–11 and 11–15 are multi-functional assessment systems designed to highlight differences between actual and expected literacy levels.
Single word reading, sentence reading, spelling, reasoning, mbile (auditory memory), cave (visual memory), nonwords (phonics skills), and phonological processing (segments).
|Additional References||Horne, J. (2002). Development and Evaluation of Computer-based Techniques for Assessing Children in Educational Settings. (PhD). University of Hull. Horne, J. (2007). Gender differences in computerised and conventional educational tests. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23(1), 47-55.|
|Authors||Horne, J., Keates, A., & Stansfield, J.|
|Age range||11–15 years|
|Key Stage(s) applicable to||KS3, KS4|
|UK standardisation sample||Yes|
|Validity measures available?||Yes|
|Reliability measures available?||Yes|
|Note whether shortlisted, and reasons why not if relevant||Shortlisted|
|Additional information about what the test measures||
Word reading, spelling, sentence reading.
|Are additional versions available?||
There is a parallel form of LASS for younger children (LASS 8–11). Previous editions have swapped between being called LASS Secondary and LASS 11–15.
|Can subtests be administered in isolation?||
|Administration group size||
Individual, small group
45 minutes (5 minutes per subtest)
|Description of materials needed to administer test||
Computer, headphones or speakers, keyboard and mouse.
|Any special testing conditions?||
|What device is required||
Computer or tablet
|Progress through questions||
Adaptive for sentence reading, spelling and reasoning. Flat for word reading, nonword reading, segments and cave. Discontinue rule for mobile.
|Is any prior knowledge/training/profession accreditation required for administration?||
|Is administration scripted?||Yes|
|Description of materials needed to score test||
|Types and range of available scores||
Age standardised scores, stanines (1–9), percentile, T-score, z-score
|Score transformation for standard score||
|Age bands used for norming||
Computer scoring with direct entry by test taker.
|Does it adequately measure literacy, mathematics or science?|
|Does it reflect the multidimensionality of the subject?||
Generic literacy (with specific subtests)
|Construct validity comments (and reference for source)||
The teacher’s manual (Horne et al., 2010) illustrates construct validity is through correlations with other appropriate instruments. Construct validity is excellent for sentence reading and spelling, and adequate for reasoning and the diagnostic measures. Sentence reading correlates with NFER sentence completion at r = .75. Spelling correlates with British Spelling Test Series 3 at r = .88. Reasoning correlates with Matrix analogies test r = .52. Caves correlates with Wechsler Memory Scales Spatial span r = .37. Mobile with WMS digit span r = .55. Nonwords with PhAB nonword reading r = .43. Segments with PhAB spoonerisms r = .45. Contrasted group validity is also reported in the teacher’s manual (Horne et al., 2010). A study with 30 students with dyslexia who showed lower scores on all tests except reasoning and visual memory. 17 students with other SEN showed lower scores on all tests. 79% of students with dyslexia were correctly identified.
|Does test performance adequately correlate with later, current or past performance on a criterion measure of attainment?|
|Summarise available comparisons||
None available to review.
|Is test performance reliable?|
|Summarise available comparisons||
Internal consistency is not reported. Temporal stability is illustrated in a study with a 4 week test-retest interval which is reported in the Teacher’s Manual (Horne et al., 2010). The coefficients can be summarised as indicating good stability for literacy measures (sentence reading .85; spelling .93); adequate for nonwords and segments (nonwords .77; segments .74) and inadequate for reasoning, cave and mobile (reasoning .51; cave .53; mobile .58).
Is the norm-derived population appropriate and free from bias?
|Does the standardisation sample represent the target/general population well?||Yes|
|If any biases are noted in sampling, these will be indicated here.||
Sample size is good but insufficient information is provided about sample procedures and demographics to confirm that the norming sample was free from bias.
Horne, J., Keates, A., & Stansfield, J. (2010). LASS 11–15: Lucid Assessment System for Schools for ages 11 to 15 years. Teacher’s manual. Beverley, UK: Lucid Research Ltd.