Test identification

Name of test Test of Basic Arithmetic and Numeracy Skills
Version TOBANS
Previous version(s)
Subjects Maths
Summary An accurate assessment tool for Key Stage 2 that assesses children's number processing and arithmetic skills. 8 simple timed tests for the different aspects of numeracy.

Assessment screening

Subscales 8 tests - arithmetic tests (addition, addition with carry, subtraction, subtraction with carry, multiplication), basic number processing tests (dot comparison, digit comparison, count the dots)
Authors C. Hulme, K.Moll and S. Brigstocke
Publisher Oxford University Press
Test source https://global.oup.com/education/content/primary/series/tobans/?region=uk
Guidelines available? Yes
Norm-referenced scores. Yes
Age range 7-11 Years
Key Stage(s) applicable to KS1, KS2
UK standardisation sample Yes
Publication date 2014
Re-norming date n/a


Validity measures available? Yes
Reliability measures available? Yes
Reason for exclusion from shortlist shortlisted

Evaluation and Appraisal

Additional information about what the test measures Basic number sense (digit and got comparison), enumeration (counting), fluency of basic calculation skills (addition, subtraction and multiplication)
Are additional versions available? n/a
Can subtests be administered in isolation? Yes - separate scores are provided on each subtest
Administration group size individual, small group, whole class
Administration duration Timed test.Children are given 60 seconds or less to complete each subtest. Allow additional time to introduce the tests.
Description of materials needed to administer test Manual,Photocopied test sheets,Writing implements,Stopwatch,
Any special testing conditions? Organise the the classroom in a way that will facilitate administration of the test. ask children to be quiet and listen carefully to instructions.

Response format

Response mode Paper and pencil
What device is required n/a
Queston format. open ended
Progress through questions flat

Assessor requirements

Is any prior knowledge/training/profession accreditation required for administration? Not stated (no)
Is administration scripted? Yes


Description of materials needed to score test User manual,Online tracker and correlation charts to Numicon, Inspire Maths or MyMaths (www.oxfordowl.co.uk)
Types and range of available scores Raw scores,Standard scores (<70->130, subtest standard scores, composite arithmetic standard score, overall standard score),
Score transformation for standard score age standardised
Age bands used for norming 6 months
Scoring procedures Computer scoring with manual entry of responses from paper form/Simple manual scoring key - clerical skills required
Automatised norming online

Construct Validity

Does it adequately measure literacy, mathematics or science?
Does it reflect the multidimensionality of the subject? Specific measure of mathematics - arithmetic and numeracy efficiency and fluency
Construct validity comments (and reference for source) Construct validity was assessed by comparing performance against a well established measure. All participants in the standardisation sample also completed the numerical operation test of the WIAT2UK (adapted for group administration). Correlations with arithmetic composite score of TOBANS were excellent and adequate to good for other subtests (arithmetic composite .81, count the dots .64, digit comparison .62, dot comparison .54)

Criterion Validity

Does test performance adequately correlate with later, current or past performance?
Summarise available comparisons Criterion validity was assessed by comparing performance against maths SATS score a term later for a sub-sample of participants from the standardisation sample (N=160). Correlations with arithmetic composite score of TOBANS were excellent and good for other subtests (arithmetic composite .72, count the dots .54, digit comparison .49, dot comparison .36)


Is test performance reliable?
Summarise available comparisons Good test-retest correlations on all subscales .72-.93 (with a two day interval).(addition .92, addition with carry .89, subtraction .88, subtraction with carry .85, multiplication .93, arithmetic composite .97, dot comparison .72, digit comparison .80, count the dots .79).Demographics of test-retest reliability sample are unclear (N=93).

Is the norm-derived population appropriate and free from bias?

Is population appropriate and free from bias? No
If any biases are noted in sampling, these will be indicated here. Whole classes participate, all schools located in Yorkshire, information about SEND and FSM provided at school level only, where is below national average in both cases. Gender differences were small and not statistically reliable


Sources Brigstocke, S., Moll, K., & Hulme, C. (2016). Test of Basic Arithmetic and Numeracy Skills. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.