About the Measure

Domains Literacy
Subscales Six subtests: rhyme awareness, syllable segmentation, alliteration awareness, sound isolation, sound segmentation and letter-sound knowledge
Target Construct Literacy: Phonological awareness
Description Helps identify children at risk for reading failure. Fulfils the phonological awareness requirements of the Early Reading First and Reading First initiatives. Includes six subtests: Rhyme Awareness, Syllable Segmentation, Alliteration Awareness, Sound Isolation, Sound Segmentation, Letter-Sound Knowledge.
Test Authors Dodd, B., Crosbie, S., McIntosh, B., Teitzel, T. & Ozanne, A.
Publisher Pearson (2003)

Implementation details

Respondent Child
Prior knowledge Required Speech language therapists, trained teachers or professional administrators
Scoring Clear and transparent administration and scoring criteria
Time 25 to 30 minutes
Age 4 years to 6 years and 11 months

Psychometric details

UK norms YES partially
Norm / Criterion referenced Norm referenced
Standardisation sample 1995-96 583 children in Australia. In 1999 595 children in UK for Letter knowledge
Reliability Internal consistency ranges from 0.70 to 0.97; test-retest ranged form 0.32 to 0.98. Inter rater ranged from 0.27 to 1.00
Criterion validity Classification data to identify children who need intervention. Consistency with the ERDA varies by age.
Construct validity Using data from the standardization sample (n=450), intercorrelations among subtests were consistent with expectations. The Letter-Sound Knowledge subtest showed .78 for Alliteration Awareness and .78 for Sound Isolation. Weaker correlations were demonstrated where “subtests measure different levels of phonological units” (.42 for Syllable and Sound Segmentation).
Concurrent validity PIPA was compared to Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment, Second Edition (ERDA, Second Edition): 1. moderate to high correlations for kindergarteners, 2. low correlation on PIPA Syllable Segmentation and ERDA Phonemes, 3. moderate correlations for subtests of phonemic awareness and ERDA Phonemes (range from .55 to .69), 4. moderate to high correlation for Letter-Sound Knowledge and seven ERDA subtests requiring decoding letters (range .42 to .81), 5. the highest correlation was found between the Letter-Sound Knowledge subtest and ERDA Letter Recognition (.81). Correlations between PIPA and PAT 0.63 for rhyme detection and 0.61 for letter knowledge. For TERA the same correlations are 0.39 and 0.50