About the Measure

Domains Social Emotional
Subscales Total score and five subscales: emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity,/inattention, peer relationships, prosocial items. Also possible to derive an impact score.
Target Construct Social emotional: Emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity and inattention, peer relationship problems and prosocial behaviour.
Description The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural screening questionnaire about 3-16 year olds. It exists in several versions to meet the needs of researchers, clinicians and educationalists. Each version includes between one and three of the following components: psychological attributes, impact supplement and follow up questions.
Test Authors Goodman, R. N.
Publisher DAWBA (1997 (new norms 2011-2013))

Implementation details

Respondent Parents or educators
Prior knowledge Required There is no minimum licencing to use the tool
Scoring Hand scoring not recommended; online scoring available with syntax for different statistics programmes. Important to remember social scale scores need to be transformed
Time One sided version with 25 items, administration time approximately 5 minutes
Age 3 years to 16 years

Psychometric details

UK norms YES
Norm / Criterion referenced Norm referenced
Standardisation sample 11457
Reliability A high level of internal consistency was reported (mean α= .73 for the different SDQ scores and informants)
Criterion validity Correlations with 'real world outcomes'
Construct validity Research studies confirm a five factor structure. Total difficulties and total impact scores were all satisfactory (α=.80 or above). Internal consistency of self-report peer problems score was noticeably low (α=.41)
Concurrent validity Correlations among parent, teacher, and self-report SDQ scores are moderate. For Dutch sample older children significant correlations between self-report and Child Behaviour Check-List; Parent version of the Child Depression Inventory; Parent version of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale; Parent version of the ADHD Questionnaire.