About the Measure

Domains Motivation, goal orientation and perseverance, Perceptions of Self
Key stages Key Stage 2, Key Stage 3, Key Stage 4, Key Stage 5
Subscales I+ (internal responsibility for success); I- (internal responsibility for failure)
Description This instrument was designed to measure academic locus of control and thus provides insight into perceived sources of success and failure.
Example When you lose at a game of cards or checkers, does it usually happen a. because you tried harder, or b. because you don't play w
Link http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1126783.pdf

Implementation details

No. of items 34
Format Dichotomous
Respondent Self
Scoring Standardised
Time 0
Age 8-18
Cost single purchase Free
Cost per child Free

Psychometric details

UK norms Yes
Cronbach's α .54-.60
Test retest 2 months, r= [.47,.74]
Inter-rater reliability Not reported
EFA Not reported
CFA Not reported
Criterion validity Not reported
Construct validity r= [.14,.26] with IQ; r= [-.04,.17] with social class
Concurrent validity r= -.26 between I- and Children's Social Desirability (CSD) scores in younger children; r= .15 between I+ and CSD responses in older children
Predictive validity Not reported
Responsiveness Not reported
Floor/Ceiling Not reported
References Crandall, V. C., Katkovsky, W., & Crandall, V. J. (1965). Children's beliefs in their own control of reinforcements in intellectual-academic achievement situations. Child Development, 36(1). 91-109. doi:10.2307/1126783
Reid, I., & Croucher, A. (1980). The Crandall Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire: A British validation study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 40(1), 255-258. doi:10.1177/001316448004000142