About the Measure

Domains Mental health and wellbeing, Perceptions of Self
Key stages Key Stage 3, Key Stage 4, Key Stage 5
Subscales Internal locus of hope; External locus of hope; External locus of hope-peers; External locus of hope-family
Description Measures an individual's perceptions as to whether they believe they are the focal point of their goal attainment.
Example I meet the goals that I set for myself
Link Contact author at allanbibernardo@umac.mo

Implementation details

No. of items 40
Format Likert
Respondent Self
Scoring Standardised
Time 0
Age 12-18
Cost single purchase Available from a
Cost per child Available from a

Psychometric details

UK norms No
Cronbach's α .69-.95
Test retest Not reported
Inter-rater reliability Not reported
EFA Not reported
CFA 4-factor model
Chi-square(430)= 897.6
p= 0.0001
Chi-square/df= 2.09
CFI= 0.93
TLI= 0.92
RMSEA= 0.04
Criterion validity Not reported
Construct validity Not reported
Concurrent validity Not reported
Predictive validity Not reported
Responsiveness Not reported
Floor/Ceiling Not reported
References Bernardo, A. B. I. (2010). Extending hope theory: Internal and external locus of trait hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(8), 944–949. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.036
Bernardo, A. B. I. (2014). Hope in early adolescence: Measuring internal and external locus-of-hope. Child Indicators Research, 8(3), 699–715. doi:10.1007/s12187-014-9254-6