Education Endowment Foundation:Grammar for Writing (re-grant)

Grammar for Writing (re-grant)

Exeter University
Implementation cost
Evidence strength
Impact (months)
Independent Evaluator
The Institute for Effective Education
The Institute for Effective Education logo
Testing a programme of CPD and materials for primary teachers to improve pupils’ writing by increasing their effective use of grammar.
Pupils: 7239 Schools: 155 Grant: £173,000
Key Stage: 1 Duration: 9 month(s) Type of Trial: Effectiveness Trial
Completed Jul 2017

This page covers the second (effectiveness) trial of Grammar for Writing, testing a scalable model under everyday conditions in a large number of schools. To read about the first (efficacy) trial – testing whether it could work in schools under best possible conditions – click here.

Grammar for Writing (GfW) is a way of teaching writing that is designed to help pupils understand how linguistic structures convey meaning, as an alternative to teaching grammatical rules in the abstract.

In 2012, the EEF funded a number of programmes, designed to improve literacy outcomes for pupils at the transition from primary to secondary school. Grammar for Writing was chosen for this because previous evaluations have found that grammar interventions can have a positive impact on writing skills.

The first evaluation found some evidence of promise. Despite its short duration (4 weeks), it had a small positive impact when delivered to the whole class, and a larger impact when delivered to small groups – although this second result may have been due to the small group work rather than the intervention itself.

Following these results, the EEF funded a larger evaluation of a scalable version of GfW. This second evaluation focused solely on the whole-class version of GfW and on Year 6 pupils rather than pupils at the transition. It was also delivered over 6 weeks rather than 4. It found no evidence of an impact on pupils’ writing outcomes.

The difference in results between the two evaluations might be the result of the differences in delivery described above. It might also be partly due to implementation problems during the second trial: while teachers were generally satisfied with the programme, many adapted or left out key components such as using classroom discussions to explore the effects of grammatical choices.

Given uncertainty around the impact in the first evaluation and the lack of impact in the second, the EEF will be removing Grammar for Writing from the list of promising projects. We continue to be interested in grammar-based approaches to writing

Nearly three-quarters of intervention teachers indicated that they had adapted the programme for delivery.In addition,fidelity to two of the key programme principles, connections made between grammar and effect/​purpose in writing’ and discussion used to tease out thinking and choice-making’ was regarded by the evaluator to be compromised in a number of the schools observed.

Project type:Effectiveness Trial
Key stage:Key Stage 2
Delivered by:Teachers
Participant group:Whole Class
Intervention length:1
Cost per pupil:£10
No. of Teachers/​TAs:Variable
Staff training duration:4